His Life: Revolutionary Son of Mother India
- Year 1907 – Born in Lyallpur district, Pakistan.
- Year 1919 – Visited Jallianwala Bagh massacre site.
- Year 1926 – Founded Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
- Year 1928 – Killed John P. Saunders to avenge the death of Lalaji.
- Year 1929 – Bombed the Central Legislative Assembly.
- Year 1931 – Hanged by the British government.
The sanctity of law can be maintained only so long as it is the expression of the will of the people.
Shaheed Bhagat Singh was a famous Indian revolutionary and the most revered hero of the Indian nationalist movement. He, along with Sukh Dev and Raj Guru was hanged by the British government for bombing the Central Assembly Hall. His martyrdom left behind a rich legacy of patriotism and he is still a youth icon inspiring countless youths.
Bhagat Singh was born to Kishan Singh and Vidyavati Kaur on September 27, 1907 in Banga village, Jaranwala tehsil, Lyallpur district, Pakistan. He was born into a family active in the Indian freedom struggle. His grandfather Arjun Singh was the follower of Arya Samaj, his fathers and uncles were members of the revolutionary organization known as the Ghadar Party. His upbringing in such a family shaped his view towards nationalism and made him a patriot.
At the age of 12 in 1919 he went to see the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and witnessed the horrors of British Raj. The incident deeply saddened and shook little Bhagat and he took a pledge to uproot the Imperial rule from India.
He received his early education from D.A.V. High School in Lahore. He then attended the National College in Lahore. He studied European revolutionary movements and met other revolutionaries in college. It was during this time his patriotic spirit was intensified.
He ran away to Kanpur when his family forced him for an arranged marriage, saying that if he married in slave India, “my bride shall only be death” and stayed unmarried his whole life.
Political Journey & Contribution in Indian Independence:
In the wake of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Gandhiji started non-cooperation movement in 1920. But he had to call off the movement after ChauriChaura incident of 1922. Bhagat got disenchanted with Gandhiji’s philosophy and ways of non-violence to achieve freedom. In the mean time he founded Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 and joined the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), which already had famous revolutionary members like Chandrasekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqallah Khan.
Initially his activities were limited to writing against the British Raj and disseminating materials like posters, pamphlets and flyers to provoke the Indian mass against the colonial rule. Britishers became wary of him and arrested him in 1927 for his alleged involvement in a bombing that took place in Lahore in October 1925. He was released after five months and a surety of 60,000 rupees.
Bhagat Singh rechristened the HRA to HRSA (Hindustan Republic Socialist Association) in 1928. In the same year, LalaLajpat Rai led a peaceful procession in Lahore to protest against the Simon Commission. The police mercilessly lathi charged the procession and Lalaji got fatally injured and later succumbed to his injuries. To avenge his death Bhagat Singh along with other revolutionaries from HRSA planned to kill James A. Scott, who was responsible for lathi charge on procession and consequently the death of Lalaji. They went to Lahore to execute their plan, but mistakenly killed John P. Saunders.
In the following year, Bhagat Singh and few of his associates conspired to bomb the Central Legislative Assembly. The plan was to bomb the assembly in response of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Dispute Act. They intended to explode the bomb without causing any injury to anyone as it would send a loud and clear message to the crown. On April 8, 1929, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw two bombs into the Assembly chamber. They stood there shouting InquilabZindabad and throwing pamphlets till they got arrested
Both, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were put behind the bars for their actions. The bombing attracted huge attention and mixed reactions from the crowd. The likes of Gandhiji condemned the attack while other radical leader lauded the act of valor. Later, police arrested other members of the HRSA for the killing of Saunders and making bombs in the factories. Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were sentenced to death by the British government. In the early morning of March 23, 1931 Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore Jail along with the other two.